Category Archives: Deviance

Sex and Gender

When someone says sex or gender, usually the first thing that comes to mind is “girl and boy.” Although sex and gender may sound like they are the same thing, they are actually very different. In sociology, sex is defined as the biological differences between boys and girls. Gender is defined as the social and cultural significance that we attach to the biological differences of sex. When one thinks about a male, the words that usually come up are masculine, provider, protector, and so on. When one thinks about a female, words like feminine, soft, and emotional usually come to mind. But why is this? Why do we classify different genders with different ‘labels’? The answer is simple: society.

The society we live in is almost always in control of classifying what defines males and females. Society and the people that live in it can—unwillingly—determine how a boy should behave and how a girl should behave, which begins at birth. Baby boys are usually wrapped up in blue blankets when they are born and are given dark-colored clothing to wear. Baby girls are wrapped up in pink blankets and wear light-colored clothing. This is known as gender socialization. Boys usually wear dinosaurs or trucks on their shirts, whereas girls will most likely wear butterflies and hearts. If a young boy was wearing a pink shirt, people would stop and stare at the child as if there was something wrong with him. This is because it is not normal for a boy to wear such a “girly” shirt. The parents of the boy would most likely be frowned upon as well for allowing their son to wear that shirt.

The toys we buy our children also classify them with gender. We usually buy young boys violent things—like trucks and plastic weaponry—while we buy young girls less violent things—like tea sets and dolls—because that’s the “normal” thing to do. Seeing a boy play with a Barbie is considered deviant, which means it’s not normal for that society. The same goes for girls who play with monster trucks. The normal thing to see is boys roughhousing with other boys and girls having tea parties with other girls. We never expect to see a boy in a tea party, although it does happen, but there should be nothing wrong with that. We get so caught up in what we “think” are the normal behaviors that boys and girls need to obey, we overlook a simple question: what if we’re wrong? Children should be allowed to express themselves however they want. So, if a boy wants to wear a tutu, we should let him. If a girl wants to play football, we should let her. We need to stop forcing our kids to become what we think they should be and let them be who they want to be.

Unfortunately, gender classification doesn’t stop at childhood. Teens and adults are still categorized as being either boy or girl by society. However, as people grow, they are more socially obligated to adhere to the stereotypes that society has placed on them. A boy is only classified as a “man” if he is strong, aggressive, active, and dominant. Likewise, a girl is only classified as a “woman” is she is nurturing, kind, submissive, and emotional. A man who displays any stereotype classified to women would be labeled as a “girl” or a “wussy.” A woman who displays manly aspects would be labeled as a “tomboy” or a “lesbian.” There is no escaping these stereotypes. Men must act like “men”, and women must act like “women.” If someone steps out of these boundaries, he/she will be negatively labeled for his/her deviance.

Although both genders experience stereotypes, one thing is true: gender inequality exists. It’s true that both men and women must alter their lives so that society will accept them, but it’s harder for women. Women are still treated unequally to men. Now, it’s true that women have more equality than they did decades ago, but they’re still fighting to be treated equally. One way women are still unequal to men is income. Women—to this day in the USA—only make about seventy-seven cents to a man’s dollar. This is called the gender pay gap. Woman must also face the facts that men get more opportunities in jobs and education than they do. It’s not just up to women to fight for women’s rights. Men should also reach out and try to help women become more equal. Together, they can change the world for the better.

Another aspect of our lives that classifies us as people is our sexual orientation. Although the majority of the world is known as heterosexual—liking those of the opposite—some people classify as something else. Some people classify as homosexual, which means they are attracted to the same sex. Bisexuality is another one, which means they are attracted to both sexes. There are even people who claim to be transsexual, which is when someone has the body of one sex, but they claim to have the mind and soul of the other sex. Sexual orientation has a huge impact on how others see us. Those who classify as homosexual, bisexual, transsexual, or anything else that isn’t heterosexual are usually frowned upon. This is because they aren’t considered “normal” and people believe they should be negatively sanctioned for their lifestyle choice. People should not be classified as “immoral” for being a little different from everybody else. Everyone deserves to be treated equally. Nobody should be ashamed of who they are.

Considering everything above, sex and gender plays a huge role in who we are. But why do we let our sex and gender control us? Everyone should not be afraid to be who they are. We should be able to live our lives the way we see fit without getting the “stink eye” from bystanders. We must also try to bring more equality to the world. I know that there’s been movements to try and bring equality to the world, but just because some have failed doesn’t mean that we should give up. Equality is desperately needed in this world and we have the power to bring great change.

–Aaron

Homosexuality

Homosexual:  those who are attracted to members of the same sex. Homosexuality is considered a deviant act and goes against the social norms and values of our culture in the minds of heterosexuals. Sexual Orientation plays a huge part in the ways in which people judge one another based off who they are as a human. There are four different types of sexual identity:  Straight, Bisexual, Gay and Lesbian, all in which plays a part in roles we play and norms of society, relating to family, gender and marriage.

We are all obligated to pay taxes and follow the laws. But as we know, many are not living by the laws nor are we really paying taxes when we put single down on our tax return because homosexual marriage is not allowed by state law. Homosexual humans  are not given the same rights as heterosexual humans because we, as deviant people, are not granted  the same respect as those who follow the norms of the culture. However, no matter your gender, race, ethic background or sexual orientation, every U.S. citizen deserves the same opportunities as everyone one else. First we need to change the definition of what marriage stands for and end using the label of “Gay” to simply two people falling in love. Ending discrimination, homophobia, ignorance and the rejection of one’s true self.

Growing up as a homosexual has been a long, confusing road, due to the ways I grew up in the church and to the beliefs that were instilled in me. We humans are being constantly hammered with a moral code that contradicts our parents telling us to express ourselves and be who we are. I’ve known I was gay since I was in the eighth grade, however, I just came out a year ago to my family and recently to my friends and made it public on Facebook. This is one of the biggest fears that I have faced, but I finally feel free to be me and being free to be who I am and who I was created to be has been one of the greatest and sweetest joys that I’ve come to know. Living a life of secrets, lies and living in the unknown of what people may say or think about me, held me in bondage.  But now I’m finally set free! Life is too short to be something you’re not. Live life to the fullest; only you can make you happy. Fight for what you believe in, after all we do have freedom of speech.

Feminism

No country has reached gender equality. I say this with great regret. For centuries women have been battling to achieve equality. It has taken hard work and perseverance from women to achieve even a slight change in the social construction of gender. These women, who campaign for gender equality, are called feminists. Feminists believe in feminism, which is the advocacy for the rights of women to be socially, economically, and politically equal to men.

There are three waves of feminism. The first wave began in the 19th and 20th century. In the early 1900’s, women were not to work; they were to give birth and care for their children. Men were the workers; men were the only people who had social mobility. Social mobility is the ability for an individual to “move from one position of a society’s stratification system to another” (Witt 241). Women were not to be anything other than housewives; they could not experience mobility because they had limited involvement in the workforce.

In this case, men were the instrumental leaders of the household; they handled all of the outside obligations of the family and had certain goals outside of the home. Women were the expressive leaders of the house, where they were responsible for handling the internal affairs of the family. Harriet Martineau, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, and Ida B. Wells, formed this theory about instrumental and expressive leaders. In their theory they recognize that the woman’s job as being an expressive leader, gives way for men to complete their instrumental tasks (307). In my understanding this is saying that, while women are at home taking care of the family, men are progressing in society because they have time to do so. This means that women cannot progress through society on their own, but merely in their husband’s shadow. Feminists are the kind of people who aspire to show other women that they too, can have goals. Feminists view themselves and other women to have the ability to be instrumental leaders. So, from a feminist point of view, not only can the man be the one who is allowed to have goals outside of the home, but women can too. Women can express themselves in whatever way they would like, and they have the ambition, will power, and intelligence to be more than just housewives.

Even in the political world in this time, women were not equal to men. Not only were not working outside of the home in large numbers, but they also could not vote. This wave of feminism is noticeable because it was in the time that there was a significant move towards gender equality. Up until 1919, women were not granted suffrage. Women were not granted the right to vote, to work, or to be a part of governmental decisions. Feminists in this time fought for their right to suffrage; they marched, they rallied, and they campaigned for equal rights. These women were tired of being oppressed; they wanted to be involved in the world around them. In 1920, feminists won one of their many battles for equality; they were granted suffrage.

In the second wave, many journalists stepped forward to pronounce their understanding of gender equality, and advocated for change in the workforce. Betty Freidan, the author of The Feminine Mystique,used both her writing and her verbal language to communicate to the public her beliefs on feminism (300). From Freidan’s understanding, women were isolated from society and did not have the social, economic or political resources to be successful. As a feminist, Friedan suggested that women should contest the thought that their goal in life is to have children and be a wife. Women needed to strive to achieve more in life and fight for the kind of life they wanted and occupation they wanted. Feminist organizations, such as the National Organization for Women, started to arise. These organizations helped to fight for women’s equality politically, while women individually fought for their social freedom.

Feminists strive to be equal to men and aim for the dollar they make to be the same dollar that men make. Today, women make about 77 cents to the dollar that a man makes. The amount of money a woman receives for the same work as a man is significantly less than what he makes, this is called the gender pay gap.

Even though the pay gap is not completely closed, there has been some success in closing it. Women in 2014, are able to work in the government, along with men. Even though they are not paid equally to men, they can achieve similar, though not equal, social statuses to them. Along with that, there are also some men who earn less than women since women have taken over a large portion of the workforce in America. Although these success stories are enticing, they also reveal the problem with the social statuses of women in the United States. Women can only go so far in the workplace; they cannot succeed men in their standing of prestige. Where men are doctors, women are nurses, if that brings upon a better understanding of the matter. There is an invisible barrier between how much a woman can achieve in relation to what a man can achieve this is called the glass ceiling. The glass ceiling stops qualified women from moving upward in the workforce. Feminists have worked hard to break this glass ceiling. But it is important to note that without feminist actions bringing women to the workforce in the first place, there would not only be a glass ceiling, there would be no work.

There is always another step to take when attempting to achieve gender equality. There are some women who have guided the way to prove that the ceiling can be broken. For example, Sheryl Sandberg has become the Chief Operating Officer of Facebook, which is a highly appraised position that would normally be held by a man. The fact that a woman has taken charge of such a large corporation proves that even though society has attempted to stop strong women from achieving their goals, they do not always succeed. Feminists are the people who believe that women can be just as strong and predominant as Sandberg, Hilary Clinton, or even Michelle Obama. Feminists advocate for women to aspire to achieve the highest social status they could possibly imagine. This is because feminists do not fear such a thing as the glass ceiling, but rather see it as a challenge that they are ready to face head on.

The third wave of feminism involved advocacy for cultural freedom for women. There was this idea that women were to be uptight, clean, polite, and obedient. Women were sanctioned negatively if they broke their gender role. This idea that women were supposed to behave and dress how men wanted them to, is where the term sexism originated. Sexism is, as Jon Witt has explained it, “the ideology that claims one sex is superior to the other” (308). Men were under the impression that women dressed and behaved for them, and that everything they did, was to be for the pleasure of men. This was because women were inferior to men, and were to be submissive to their ideals. Sexism is what really started off the third wave of feminism.

Kathleen Hanna was a feminist who pushed for another wave of feminism to begin. This part of the third wave was mostly viewed and understood by millennials of the era. This is because Kathleen was in an all-girl punk band titled Bikini Kill. Many people ranging from pre-teens to those in their early twenties were deep into the punk scene. This is why this part of the wave is not found in history or sociology books, because it was sort of an underground station of feminism. Instead of soft, soothing singing and harmonious sounds, Kathleen screamed into the microphone and wore only her underwear and a t-shirt to gigs. Occasionally she would write “slut” across her stomach or some sort of label that men had given her in the past. She shouted about how men treated women like they were some sort of material good, and how women deserved just as much as what men have. Her words struck the hearts and minds of women who had been abused, neglected, and even oppressed by men. She not only played for women, but for men also. She talked about the hardships of men and how she hoped to see the day when men could be seen as sensitive creatures without being oppressed because of it. This band was a powerhouse for a large feminist movement called Riot Grrrl.

Riot Grrrl was focused on bringing women together and having them recognize their oppression. It was all about GIRL POWER. Hanna had an unladylike persona and outright opinion that turned men away from her, and brought more girls to her shows. Girls began to relate to Hanna since she sang about rape, sexism, and the oppression of women in society. When men became disgusted by Hanna’s performance and attitude, it was obvious that gender equality in this time was less about sex and more about gender. Sex is the biological difference between a man and a woman. Gender is the social and cultural differences between a man and a woman. In this case, a woman was acting out of the ordinance that society thinks that a person of the female gender should act. The female gender is supposed to be petite, clean, and quiet. The male gender can be vile, gross, and loud. So when Hanna broke the socially constructed norm for the female gender, she was deemed as deviant. Even though Hanna was deviant, that did not stop her feminist movement. Riot Grrrl expanded, and even more women started to break their gender roles. This opened up an entirely new world of feminism, one where it was a culture, rather than just a movement. Still today Riot Grrrl exists, along with many other feminist organizations. The purpose of the Riot Grrrl movement and of Bikini Kill was to allow women to express themselves however they wanted. If a woman wanted to dress like a man at a Bikini Kill show, that was accepted, she was accepted no matter how she looked or acted. Eventually, this movement of the 1990’s encouraged women to express themselves freely. Obviously, women are still pressured through gender roles, but there are more women acting freely now than there were many years ago.

Still, today, women are advocating feminism. Why, might you ask? Well, because gender inequality is still an immense problem in not only the United States, but all around the world. One of the main dilemmas with feminism is that, not everyone truly understands what it means. The definition can be disoriented, because there are so many pop stars that are skewing the understanding of the word. There are famous people who are making it seem as if feminism is hatred towards men, and that feminists should rally against men. This understanding of feminism is far from correct. Like I said before, feminism is the advocacy for women to be equal to men. That is taking into consideration that men have been oppressed also, and there are gender norms for men, just like there are for women. So, instead of fighting against men, it is better for us to inspire men to fight with us. An actress that campaigned for feminism brilliantly was Emma Watson. Emma began a campaign called He for She, which asks men to promote equality for women through social media. This helped to invite men to express themselves as feminists, because before it was as if they were not allowed to be part of the movement. Women like Emma Watson are changing the future of our women. It is important that females, look to people like Emma and Kathleen, and never give up on fighting for equality. Equality is what we have been fighting for, for years. After centuries, we still have not achieved gender equality. There is still a gender pay gap, sexism still exists, and so do the norms for men and women in society.

Gender equality needs to be the objective for our children, our grandchildren, and even our grandchildren’s children. Feminism must not die out like it did after its second wave, and it needs to be understood for what it really means; men and women deserve to be equal to one another.

— Danielle

Works Cited:  Witt, Jon. SOC 2014. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2015. Print.

Discrimination

School News PicSo, imagine for a second, you are a high school student. You have joined an after school club that broadcasts the weekly school news. You come to every meeting and work hard on getting footage for the news and weather and then, after you have spent about 15 hours of collecting this, you give it to the editor and they say “great job, hope to see you on broadcast day”. But before you go you ask if you can host the weather, and the editor says “of course”. So you come in on Friday, all pumped to do the weather and you see another guy, that you didn’t think was even in the club getting set up, you ask the editor what’s going on, you are then informed that they are in the club even though they haven’t shown up to any meeting or put any work into preparing the broadcast at all and that they are going to host the weather. Then when you confront the editor and say that she told you that you could host the weather, they say “oh, that’s right, well, he’s all set up right now, could you wait until next Friday”, and you say yes because you don’t want to cause trouble. This scenario repeats itself until you bring the editors actions to the head of the club (the librarian) and they let you host the weather one time, and not again. Coincidentely, the guy that has been taking the weather hosting from you is the son of the mayor, and the broadcast club is full of his friends who also happen to have parents that work with the mayor. This is a perfect example of discrimination; you aren’t friends with anyone in the broadcast club, so you don’t get to participate on broadcast day, no matter how much work you put into it.

Workplace_discrimination_gettyThis situation is similar in the workplace as well. You have just finished your master’s in bio engineering and have a near perfect GPA of 3.9; you are ready to find a lab to work in. You go around to 4 different labs and over the course of 9 months, you get declined from all of them. They say that they aren’t taking on any new engineers at this point, but what they really mean is that they don’t want to hire a woman.  Those 4 labs that you applied to hired men that were just as qualified for that job as you were, and you applied first. Discrimination, sadly, is everywhere and it continues even in the “equal” society we pride ourselves upon. Individuals or groups that have preconceived notions or are prejudice toward a certain groups of people will try to bar those people from participating socially in the community, and sometimes they try to control aspects of your personal life, too. Something current is gay marriage. People think that marriage is strictly between a man and a woman, but when this idea is challenged, people’s first reaction is to discriminate, instead of making informed, open-minded decisions. The homosexual lifestyle, in their eyes, deviates from what is socially accepted. Even now, states still keep gay marriage illegal, even when a number of them have legalized it. Because discrimination in not just specific to a certain group pf people, like I said, it’s everywhere. However, discrimination is not as bad is it was in the 60’s; a white police officer cannot simply shoot an unarmed black man and get away with it, oh wait, that just happened in Ferguson, Missouri didn’t it. Until people start accepting each other for who they are and not judge them for their lifestyle, skin color, gender, religion, nationality, we will never be free of prejudice or discrimination.

–Ryan

Bisexuality

The concept that I decided to pick is bisexual.  An explanation of this concept would be when someone that is either a male or female is attracted to both genders. An example of this sexual orientation would be when I was in high school, I had someone in my grade that was a bisexual and it took me a while to realize what was going on. It seemed like one day she had a boyfriend and was holding his hand and stuff and then the next day she was with a girl acting the same way. I thought maybe the girl was her best friend or something but then I found out that they were more than friends when I saw them kiss.

In some cultures people would think of this in terms of heteronormativity, which means that it is considered a deviant behavior because they believe that everyone should be heterosexual. Being bisexual can be a problem because some people get offended by it and might judge them. Most people don’t like things that are out of the norm, and might react in vicious ways like bullying someone who is bisexual. This could happen anywhere but I could imagine that the making fun of would be worse in high school.

Bullying can cause major damage to a human emotionally, no matter what gender they are attracted too. Being brought down emotionally can cause major depression, suicide, and other harmful things. We can’t stop bullying entirely because people are going to do it no matter what. But we can try to prevent it by saying something when

–Mariah

ANOMIE

“Anomie is a state of normlessness that typically occurs during a period of profound social change and disorder, such as a time of economic collapse, political or social revolution, or even sudden prosperity.” – Jon Witt

According Dr. Cecil Greek at FloridaStateUniversity, “Emile Durkheim used anomie to describe a condition of deregulation that was occurring in society. Anomie, simply defined, is a state where norms (expectations on behaviors) are confused or not present” (http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/week8.htm). Some people might say life is hard, some might say that life is only as hard as you make it. I say that it is a little bit of both. There are certain guidelines or behaviors to life that if followed can make things a little more pleasant. My parents always said to me, “treat people the way you want to be treated.”  This should not be a hard concept to follow. We as people like it when someone treats us with respect. It makes us feel good as a person, whether we know this person personally or not.  It seems as time goes on, people treat one another with complete disrespect. Some people seem to be confused on what good behavior is when dealing with one another. Norms help control behavior in society, a loss of norms can result in normlessness. When communities break down eventually norms within the community breakdown. This can lead to many things.

I was once friends with a girl who had parents that had money. Not too much money, just enough to give her anything she wanted. She had a new car at sixteen and always had nice clothes and shoes.  She had it all.   She may have been a little over spoiled but this was her reward for worked hard in school. She was one of the sweetest people I have ever met; everyone loved her. It seemed like she never had a bad day and always pleasant, smiling, joking, and helping others. Both of her parents had good jobs and made good money until one not so good day. Her father was in a bad car accident, lost his job and would be unable to work for the next couple of years due to multiple surgeries.  When the accident happened my friend was in her first year of college. Her mother tried to hide their financial problems as long as possible.  As time went on, finances got worse. Finally her mother sat her down and explained the whole thing. Their finances were lower than ever before. Their social status had dramatic change. The ways of life that were once normal to her had now become a state of normlessness.  Her mother now worked all the time, and took care of her husband. Her parents no longer had time for her or money. Working and going to school full time was a challenge for her. It seemed her whole life had been turned upside down, she was different now. As time passed her behavior changed, she became mean and very unpleasant. I remember when she started to pull away, and keep to herself more. She no longer wanted to hang out or talk. She would sometimes say that she did not know what to do, or which way to go. In a short time her grades dropped and she began doing things some might call deviant. It seemed is if she did not care anymore. I believe that my friend may have slipped into a state of Anomie after her father’s accident.

According to Jon Witt, “deviance is behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.” Behavior is only deviant if society responds to it that way — a state of mind if you will.  What is deviant to one person may not be to another. I believe the scope of deviance varies from one group to another.  Negative sanctions can discourage public deviance with public punishment.  For example, a drunk drivers face, name and possible punishment may be put in the newspaper. This public punishment could increase conformity by discouraging similar violation by other people. Every society has their own deviant individuals just as everyone is deviant from time to time. Sounds funny but I think deviant behavior can be a shared behavior that could bring people together.

In society there are times when the existentence of external forces seem to out weight the individuals own will. This external force can have a massive influence on an individual’s behavior.  The influence that society can have on one’s behavior can be a good thing or a bad one. This influence from society can help keep us socially integrated. Social integration makes people feel like they fit in or belong to something.

When social integration is weak, it is easier to be deviant. When people feel like they belong to a group they may be less likely to commit deviant acts and more likely to conform in order to fit in. Once conformed, the individual may feel more connected, less lonely and isolated. This would decrease the feeling of Anomie. When people within a society have more shared experiences in common this increases social integration.

SOCIAL NORMS

Without the social norms that we abide by each and every day, there would be absolutely no expectations of how anyone is supposed to “normally” behave. From the moment we wake up on our mattress, usually atop a box spring and frame (the standard sleeping structure in western culture); we follow the norms that have been taught to us since the moment we entered onto this earth.

I think that maintaining these norms, and being seen as normal for abiding by them, are of extreme importance to nearly everyone in every society. To fit in is everyone’s ultimate goal. In order to retain the importance of the norms we’ve constructed, we have created different levels of negative sanctions to deal with the disobedient social deviants. Whether it be conscious or subconscious, every time we view someone falling outside of norms we think negatively of them and react in various ways, from simply rolling our eyes to picking up a phone and dialing the police (depending on the severity of the norm breaking).

who_thisweek_26092011_17731gr-17731h2Norms in society can range from things that are seemingly insignificant as the kind of clothes we wear to things that are considered law. We consider these small norms to be folkways, and little concern is raised when someone decides to deviate from them. Although it is a folkway to wear casual clothing, such as jeans in what is considered a casual setting, no one is too bothered by someone deciding to “dress up” in something more along the lines of a suit jacket or a nice dress.  Norms that are deemed more necessary and absolute, such as driving on a specific side of the road, or refraining from murder, are referred to as mores. These mores are often written down formally whether in formats such as a school handbook, driving manual, or in laws defended by the government. Once written down, these norms are considered to be formal norms, as opposed to informal norms, which are generally grasped by the population, but not necessarily written down. Example of informal norms are the common etiquettes we’ve been raised with, such as not being “too loud” in a public environment or grocery shopping from the store aisles as opposed to someone else’s cart.

japanese_card_exchange

Negative sanctions are not the only sanctions to exist in our world of norms. Positive sanctions are seen just as often as negative sanctions. We’re given positive sanctions for obeying our norms through our good grades in schools, promotions and pats on the back at work, and general statuses in life. Because the average person obeys the norms laid out for them, they will have many more opportunities than someone who has deviated from these norms, such as a convicted felon.  Other than the obvious jail time and/or fines, felons are negatively sanctioned beyond that to continuously remind them of their wrongdoings. These sanctions can include: refusal to enter other countries, not being allowed a job in childcare or public office, etc., whereas these travel and job opportunities are seemingly very basic and attainable to the Average Joe.

tumblr_l8vf4zt3wb1qdpi3fo1_500My personal view of norms is exceptionally mixed. On one hand, I feel that norms suffocate any real sense of self and individualism. However, on the other hand, I recognize the importance of providing someone with violent tendencies a standard at which to abide by so that they don’t act on possible homicidal urges. Unfortunately because norms are so heavily relied upon, they are the major players in creating the petty insecurities we feel on a daily basis. I think that if the norms laying in the more aesthetic/subjective spectrum (such as clothing and beauty standards of the gender binary, grooming habits, interest in pop culture, etc) were to be given less focus and attention, the world would be a much happier place. If everyone could mind their own business and pay no mind as to what someone chooses to wear or who they feel like having a relationship with, it’s my belief that suicide would not be nearly as prevalent; especially in those who strain the importance of such things- teenagers. Instead of constantly having to conform and act off of what we think is “normal” our Me and I could just be one, and there wouldn’t have to be so much stress put on our looking glass self. Bullying wouldn’t exist and Ugg boots would’ve not been so vital to every fourteen-year-old girls existence. But in order to do this, one of the important factors would be to significantly cut the amount of corporate advertising shown in all forms of media. Given that in 2010 advertisers spent fifty billion dollars on television advertising alone (Ad Age), one could say cutting such a thing would be detrimental to the United States economy. Although it’s obvious that petty folkway norms can be seemingly of so much more importance in our daily lives, and cause a myriad of self detriment- I don’t think there’s any realistic way in the foreseeable future to be rid of them.

DEVIANCE

We have all seen them, “gangsters” walking around with saggy pants and baggy sweatshirts known for causing trouble and committing crime, or Goth’s with gaged ears and all black attire, known for being emotionally unstable and violent. These people are said to be deviant, with norms and values that differ from those of the greater society. These subcultures create their own norms and values that others see to be different, or deviant.

Norms are an established standard of behavior maintained by a society.  Norms can be formal, informal, folkways or mores. Formal norms are those that generally have been written down and specify strict punishment if violated. Laws are an example of formal norms. Informal norms are those that are understood but not necessarily recorded. Examples of informal norms include how one behaves in a college level classroom. Folkways are norms that govern everyday behavior but do not result in much concern if violated. Wearing acceptable clothing is an example of a folkway. Lastly, mores are norms that are seen as necessary to the welfare of society, and are based on what is right and wrong. Religious doctrines are an example of mores. Defying any of these norms can result in an individual being perceived as deviant. For an individual to conform is for him or her to go along with peers, acting in a similar manner. Just as one can conform to society, that is following social norms, one can also conform to a deviant group, acting in a way that is different from the rest of society.

Perhaps the most recognized deviant groups in society are criminals. Criminals can be individuals who commit crimes such as murder or assault, or small crimes such as income tax evasion or misinterpretation of advertisement. Whether the crime was a violent crime resulting in extreme punishment, or a small senseless one with little recognition, every move we make as humans has a sanction. Sanctions are tactics used by society to penalize or reward individuals for their behavior. Negative sanctions used for criminal activity, for example, include jail or prison sentencing, fines and community service. These sanctions are largely responsible for the “good behavior” of society, as individuals stray from behavior that could result in these negative sanctions. Positive sanctions are also part of keeping society under control, so to speak. These sanctions include praise or rewards for good behavior, such as a student being on the honor roll, or getting certificates for perfect attendance. Sanctions are a means of encouraging conformity to the standards of society, while also preventing individuals from becoming deviant.

All types of sanctions are a part of social control.  “We create norms to provide social order . . . we enforce them through social control – the techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society” (Witt 130). Social control can be exercised in families, by parents, in colleges, by teachers, or in government by the police or legislature. One example of social control in schools is the hidden curriculum. Just as sanctions teach individuals what is socially acceptable throughout life, the hidden curriculum is used in schools to teach children what behaviors are acceptable. For example, students learn to speak only when they are called on, and are taught how to socialize with authority figures in an acceptable way. These lessons are ones that will be critical throughout life, to conform to society.

Teachers are likely to have a life-long effect on their students. Not only do teachers demonstrate socially acceptable behavior to students, but they often label students as well. Labeling can both help and hurt a child while growing up. For example, if the teacher labels a student as dishonest at a young age, that child is likely to keep that label throughout his or her education. Labeling can also be seen as a sort of stereotyping. African Americans have been labeled as delinquents, bad kids or criminals for years. Labeling a group of people as bad, in this case, puts them at a disadvantage because they are more likely to accept that label.

Norms are more important in everyday life than most people know. Without norms, we would not know how to work together, how to work individually, or how to function as an entire community. Although there are disadvantages of having norms, such as having deviant individuals, norms are an absolute necessity of society.

 

Works Cited

Lunchcountersitin, . “Incarceration Rate per 100,000 Residents.” Chart. Bureau of Justice Statistics (2009). Web.

Maricopa CountyJail. Web. 23 Feb. 2013. <http://maricopacountyjail.net/&gt;.

Sackermann, Joern. Germany, Gothic People. Lightstalkers, Cologne. Web. 23 Feb. 2013.

Stylephotographs, . African Student Raising her Hand in University Class. 123RF. Web. 23 Feb. 2013.

Witt, Jon. SOC. 2012th ed. N.p.: McGraw Hill, 2012. Print.

VALUES

Why did people move to America? To have freedom.  People would say that is and will always be our biggest value in America.  In our class’s sociology book, Values are defined as “collective conceptions of what is considered good desirable, and proper – or bad, undesirable and improper, in a culture” (Witt).  Early in the 18th century people moved to America for two reasons, for religious freedom and to start a new life in the “New World.”  In the United States, people can say anything, be anything they want and go anywhere with no limits.  But is that true?

Many Americans believe they do have freedom to make decisions.  But with the growth in technology and media people don’t realize they are involved in conformity.  Conformity means “the act of going along with peers-individuals of our own status who have no special to direct our behavior.”  Another big Value for Americans is trying to save money because our economy is not the greatest.  With the influence of the media advertising products that have no beneficial factor other than wanting a person to buy it makes it difficult to save money.  For example while I was watching television one morning I saw a commercial selling a “Pillow Pet” I began to ask myself what is the benefit of having this product, but then as the commercial went on, I realized it was intended for children.  If I were a child and saw that commercial I would assume that every child had one and would beg my parents to order me one so I could be involved with the In-Group.  The In-Group “is the feeling of being involved in something special.”

There are some people that don’t like the control of Conformity in America and they rebel by being deviant.  Deviance is, “behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society” (Witt).  We have seen this happen to many celebrities all because of fame.  One example of this is Brittany Spears.  As a young artist she was forced to be a sweet and innocent singer, but as she grew up she began going out to clubs, parties and taking inappropriate pictures for the tabloids.  With America watching, we knew this was wrong and out of character for her, so we put her in a category of being deviant.

As I look at these examples I began to question whether or not I  am a conformist or if I make my own values.  I believe I am a conformist because I am in college getting the education I need to better my life.  I do believe I am involved in conformity because I eat cereal for breakfast to save time so I can do more things in my day and I shop for the newest clothes whenever I have money.  I believe that you can be whoever you want to be all you have to do is work hard to get there, which is another example of my conformity.

 

http://graceenguate.blogspot.com/2011/12/britney-spears-her-perogative.html